Shared reading can be a powerful collaborative method to help students become proficient readers, and it can be used in all content areas!
Shared Reading is the second in a series of posts about Balanced Literacy elements in the classroom. In my last post, I wrote about Read Aloud with a Purpose, where the teacher reads aloud short pieces of text for a specific teaching purpose. Beside modeling reading behaviors, the teacher also thinks aloud about the text. Shared Reading is the next step; the teacher and class come together to read aloud and discuss text projected on a screen or chart paper. Shared reading is NOT the same as choral reading, which used to be common in classrooms, but now is most often used for fluency and expression practice.
In the gradual release of responsibility model, shared reading falls under “I do, you help” or “We do.” For struggling or reluctant readers, this is a powerful way to help them practice their reading skills without being singled out. The teacher’s voice leads the way, and the students join in. Depending on the text used, shared reading can be a powerful classroom community building opportunity.
The Nuts and Bolts of Shared Reading
The text should be chosen in order to teach a specific reading strategy or lesson
The text should be enlarged via chart paper, document camera or laptop/projector
Students and teachers are reading together from the same piece of enlarged text; students should NOT have their own copy. Students can too easily drop out mentally from the lesson if looking at the text on their desks.
The text should be tracked by the teacher or the student, using either a pointer (if text is on a screen or chart paper) or with a pencil or finger (if under a doc camera).
The teacher’s voice support needs to be heard; this helps make the text accessible to all readers.
During and/or after the shared reading, the teacher and students can discuss the text and/or the reading strategy being used.
Also, the same piece of text can be used all week long for different teaching purposes. For example, on the first day students can respond to the text; the second day, a specific comprehension strategy can be discussed, and on another day, unfamiliar vocabulary can be addressed. The text is read aloud each day by teacher and students to assist with fluency skills. Check out the sample week long plan below and click HEREfor a blank copy!
Texts to use in Shared Reading
Poems and song lyrics: These types of text are perfect for not only fluency practice, but for many lessons on theme, style, vocabulary and inferences. (Stay tuned for my next blog on shared reading lessons using song lyrics!)
Content area text from textbooks, journal, articles: Avoid using the entire piece as a shared read; instead, use carefully chosen excerpts to make a teaching point or to focus on a comprehension strategy.
Test and assignment directions: How many times do students start on something without bothering to read the directions? By doing a shared read, students cannot avoid these, and through discussion will have a good understanding of what they need to do.
Cartoon strips: Depending on the cartoon, many comprehension strategies, such as inferring and context clues can be taught after a shared reading.
Content area vocabulary words (each used in a sentence): This helps students understand how the words are actually pronounced and the meaning can be inferred via context clues.
Quotes: There are so many wonderful, meaningful quotes out there and they can foster some fantastic discussions! Using these as a shared read and discussion is a great way to start each day! Below are some of my favorites.
For students to become proficient readers, they need to participate in shared learning experiences with the teacher. Not all learning should be in isolation. Remember, “Alone we can do so little, together we can do so much.” – Helen Keller
In my next post, I will focus more on using song lyrics for shared reading, and all the fun, learning…and singing you and your students can do in your own classroom!
P.S. Just in time for St. Patrick’s Day, here’s a Teachers Pay Teachers freebie for you…a St. Patrick’s Day Roll-a-Math-Word Problem Story!
This is a sample from my full product, Year-Round Math Roll-a-Word Problem Stories! All you need is a pair of dice, and students can have fun rolling for their math operation, character, setting and problem. Students will use both math and writing skills by creating the word problem, solving it and then explaining their method for solving. Students can also create word problems, exchange with others and solve!
Reading aloud in the classroom is not just a one time a day activity, and it is not only for elementary students. Teachers can use short, purposeful read alouds in all grades and all content areas!
The single most important activity for building the background knowledge required for eventual success in reading is reading aloud to children.”
– Becoming a Nation of Readers, 1985
Yes, that quote is over 30 years old…but it is STILL true! Reading aloud to kids…by parent, teachers and other adults in their lives is crucial to reading success!
In my post last week, I gave an overview of Balanced Literacy Elementsand wrote about the problem of trying to fit all of these into your daily ELA block…but that’s impossible! In order to ensure our students are proficient readers and ready for the high amount of expository reading they will encounter in secondary school, we MUST be teaching and using reading and writing strategies in content areas. This first breakout post will help you understand Read Aloud with a Purpose(RAWAP) and how this can be used in not only the literacy part of your day but in the rest of your day as well!
Read Aloud with a Purpose is not the same as your scheduled “read aloud-for- pleasure” part of the day. Of course, this IS always important to do in classrooms, especially primary, as it instills a love of reading and introduces genres and authors to kids. However, Read Aloud with a Purpose is different; it’s used in short increments several times during the school day. This time provides an opportunity for teachers to model many different reading behaviors and use of strategies. In the gradual release of responsibility model, Read Aloud with a Purpose comes at the top…”I do, you watch/listen”.
The key points to this element are as follows:
A time for students to observe a proficient reader using a specific reading strategy
The teacher should state the name of the reading strategy being modeled, either before or after the read aloud
The students must hear the teacher’s thinking as they read through a piece of text
Short, strategic pieces of text are used…from any content area.
Here are some examples of how I have used Read Aloud with a Purpose in several content areas.
Ideas for Short, Purposeful Read Alouds…in ELA
Note that for all of these examples, I do NOT read aloud the entire book (If I do, I will wait for my traditional read-aloud time. What I have found is that if you choose books wisely to use for RAWAP, you will cause students to want to read the book on their own! I used to leave my RAWAP book on my whiteboard shelf and for a few days, it was being passed around like crazy! Below are four books I have used for RAWAP in either the classroom, small groups or tutoring.
I use The Stranger by Chris Van Allsburg all the time to teach my students about inferring. I would read aloud just a few passages and think aloud about who or what this stranger could be. I pointed out both evidence in the text and talked about how my background knowledge was helping me make some inferences.
Pigeon Needs a Bath by Mo Willems (and all of the other Pigeon books) are wonderful to use when teaching persuasion. I just used it last week with my 3rd-grade tutoring student; I read parts of the book to her and we discussed what words and ideas the pigeon used to persuade. Next, she will use these persuasion ideas in her own persuasive writing project on Antarctica!
All the Places to Love by Patricia Maclachlan is perfect for teaching students about how words can invoke both feelings and senses. While training teachers on Modeling Writing (also called “Write Aloud), I read aloud the first few pages without showing them the illustrations. We then discussed what visuals they were seeing in their mind, and how the author invoked both feelings and senses by the word choice. I then shared the beautiful illustrations and we discussed further feelings gained from the images. I then used these ideas to write and think aloud in front of the teachers about the place I loved the most…my grandparents’ camp in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula.
Finally, to help a student learn about the main idea in expository books, chapters, and passages, I used an excellent non-fiction book from Scholastic’s A True Book seriesAnimals Helping with Healing by Ann O. Squire. I read aloud the first chapter, discussing sentences and details that were clues to determining the main idea. Next, I had the student read the next chapter and try to determine what the main idea was, and which details supported the idea.
You can also read excerpts from chapter books to focus on specific reading and writing strategies! Tuck Everlasting is one of my all-time favorite books, and I loved introducing it to students. I would read aloud the beginning of the book (the “August” paragraphs) for many reasons…to model inferring, predicting, vocabulary in context, or just for the sheer beauty of the words. I also loved to read aloud the beginning of The Winter Room by Gary Paulsen for all the same purposes. Here’s a link to a blog discussing favorite opening paragraphs in children’s/young adult novels.
I discovered a wonderful website, Live.Read.Write by Erika Crowl, who has created something called “Story Snippets“; wonderful excerpts from children’s books that can be read aloud to help students understand how to show, not just tell. As you read, you need to be thinking aloud about how the words help the reader to understand the feeling without the author stating what it is. Currently, she has Snippets for several emotions: calm (at left), despair, sunshine, wind, and anticipation.
It’s also fun to read aloud the JUST the very first sentences of books to students for a variety of reasons: to help them with writer’s craft, to entice them to read new books for independent reading or to model word choice. Here are some classic first lines from Kim Hart on her website.
Ideas for Short, Purposeful Read Alouds in other content areas
Understanding test or assignment directions:
Take a look at the two different set of directions above…do you see the benefit of reading and discussing these out loud with students? So many times we just expect that students will magically understand all the words in the directions and what the directions are telling them to do! I can’t tell you how many times I would hand out an assignment or test to my students, with VERY clear, bulleted directions, only to have several students coming to ask me questions on what do afterward! I finally started adding in secret messages into the directions, such as, “If you are reading these directions, write this sentence under the directions: “I read them!” and you will get five bonus points…” or something similar. It finally dawned on me that it would help if I projected the directions so all could see, then read aloud the directions and model my understanding of what I had to do to be successful in that particular assignment or test area. You could also have the students join you in a shared reading of the directions and a follow-up discussion.
Vocabulary in context:
To help students understand how to use context in reading to figure out an unfamiliar vocabulary word, I would choose a piece of text that I knew would have some difficult words. Let’s say I am teaching 5th-grade social studies unit on Explorers (been there, done that!). I plan to assign articles on explorers from Newselato help with background knowledge on exploration and explorers, as well as reading skills. Before I have them work independently on this, I am going to read an excerpt from an article and think aloud about how I would use clues in the text to figure out the words “fleet”, “mutiny” and “vessels”. I would also point out the proper name “Patagonia”; I can tell it’s a place, but I’d like to look on a map to help understand the location.
Education Corner has this to say about textbook reading: “Textbooks can be boring, tedious, and full of detail. Jumping right into a textbook without having a general idea of the central themes and topics can make textbook reading that much more challenging.” To help make this type of reading less intimidating, you can do a read/think-aloud while previewing a textbook chapter. Read and discuss the titles, the heading, any bold-faced words, picture captions, etc. Model reading aloud any chapter questions BEFORE reading and think aloud about how this will help find the answers while reading.
Math Word Problems:
This is an area in which I have spent a great deal of time helping not only my tutoring students who struggle in reading or math but also my gifted and talented students! In my own past classrooms, I know I was guilty of just assuming if students could read, they could handle these problems easily. Just look at the problem to the left; even skilled reading and math students can easily be intimidated by this! An excellent way to help with this is to provide a read/think aloud of a word problem. A teacher can do this in a whole group setting, or a small guided math group setting. The teacher reads the problem aloud, thinking aloud about what exactly needs to be solved, as well as clues given on how to solve it and any unnecessary information thrown into the problem. The teacher should also model annotating the text (highlighting, questions, thoughts). By providing this modeling, it could help many students be less intimidated by word problems! After modeling for my tutoring student, he was able to read, annotate and solve on his own!
There are so many more ways you can read aloud in content areas…just think about how much you expect kids to read silently in math, science, health, electives, etc. Now think about how much their comprehension can improve if you first MODEL proficient reading skills and THINK ALOUD about the strategies you are using. This can make a world of difference!
Let me know in the comment section below other lesson ideas or texts to use for Reading Aloud…with a Purpose!
All balanced literacy elements defined! Stay tuned for more blog posts going more into depth on these elements and how they can be used in content area!
This past week I had the honor of presenting three sessions at the annual conference of the Colorado Council of the International Reading (CCIRA). It so happened that my three sessions were on the same day, so it made for a very LONG day, but in retrospect, it was probably better as that was my entire focus for the day. This post will be the first of several covering the highlights of each of my presentations.
First up, balanced literacy! Depending on where you look, there are many different definitions of balanced literacy. Here are the ones I used in my presentation, and the ones I agree with based on my training and experiences.
In my district literacy training sessions for the Douglas County School District in Colorado, I trained hundreds of teachers on a total of TEN balanced literacy elements! WOW! The number one question I received… “How do you fit all of these into your daily literacy block?” The answer…you DON’T!In order for all of the elements to receive the same amount of attention, teachers MUST use these elements in ALL parts of the day…every content area! This should continue into secondary schools with content area and elective teachers using literacy in their classes as well. The importance of content area literacy cannot be stressed enough!
In this first post, I’m going to define each of these elements for you…some, of course, you will be very familiar with, but others may be new to you.
ALL OF THE ELEMENTS BELOW WILL BE DISCUSSED IN FURTHER BLOG POSTS!
Read Aloud with a Purpose (I Do): This is a separate time from the “sit on the floor in front of the teacher and listen to her/him read a great children’s book”…which IS always important to do in classrooms, especially primary, as it instills a love of reading and introduces genres and authors to kids. However, Read Aloud with a Purpose is used in short increments several times during the school day. It’s defined as:
The teacher chooses a read aloud based on a specific teaching purpose (strategy).
As the teacher reads aloud, she/he “thinks aloud” about the reading and offers explicit instruction on the strategy.
Students then will practice the modeled strategy in guided and independent reading.
Shared Reading (We Do): In shared reading, the text is once again chosen by the teacher for a specific strategy. The students and teacher all look at a projected or enlarged piece of text together and read in unison. If this sounds like choral reading, it’s not, because again, the teacher is using that text for a specific teacher purpose and a lesson comes during or after the choral reading. The bonus is that students are practicing fluency skills and hearing a fluent reader read with them. Shared reading works especially well when the text is a bit more complex than the usual text students read. (Image from this website.)
Guided Reading (We Do): I’m sure readers of this blog have different understandings of what guided reading is…I am using the most common interpretation popularized by Marie Clayand Fountas and Pinell, among others. Guided reading is a time for strategic teaching based on the needs of the students, ones who have been grouped together because they have similar strengths and weaknesses. There is a specific purpose for the lesson each day, and the teacher works with both the entire group, as well as individuals as needed. This is also an excellent time for teachers to observe reading behaviors in their students.
Book Clubs (We Do/You Do): Just as with adult book clubs, these are small groups reading and discussing works of literature that are appropriate for them. I’m torn between “we do” and “you do”. Teachers do have to provide the initial guidelines and structure, but then he/she must be willing to step away and be a part of the book club, as both a participant and observer. This is an excellent opportunity to just enjoy reading and discussion without specific teaching strategies, but the teacher can gain a great deal of information on both students’ reading behaviors, as well as comprehension and vocabulary skills.
Independent Reading (You Do): Most students should now be ready to take the skills and strategies learned in the previous elements and apply them to their own independent reading. The teacher is either observing reading behaviors among his/her students or conductingindividual reading conferences.
Modeled Writing (I Do): This is the teacher’s time to write in front of the students using a specific teaching purpose. The teacher uses a write-aloudto let the students know the process he/she is using. In addition to being a model for good writing, it’s also important that the students see mistakes and frustration from the teacher and how he/she works through that.
Interactive Writing: (We Do): This is sometimes called Shared Writing. The teacher and students negotiate the wording in a planned piece of text and then share the pen to create the writing. Once again, the teacher has a goal and purpose with this element, although often when the students have the pen, many other teaching opportunities may arise. This is an excellent way to create anchor charts of the classroom instead of the teacher creating one or purchasing one. The students have much more ownership and understanding of the chart if they are involved in the creation.
Guided Writing (We Do): Just as in guided reading, the teacher has created groups of students that reflect strengths and weaknesses observed in students or obtained from data. The teacher has a specific teacher purpose and collaborates with the students on creating a piece of writing. Often this writing can be used as a model when the student continues independent writing on their own.
Independent Writing (I Do): The student takes all of the strategies and new learnings from the teacher modeling and group collaborative work and uses them in his/her own writing. The teacher should use this time to do 1-1 writing conferences so he/she can observe the student’s writing behaviors, as well as provide support in difficult areas.
Interactive Editing (We Do:) This is probably the element that you are least familiar with, and it has nothing to do with the type of “editing” done in writing. In this element, the teacher guides students in using higher-level thinking, as well as creativity, in transforming a piece of text into another format, such as a summary, three column notes, a text, message, etc. This is an element that is already used in content areas!
Independent Centers or Independent Work: While the teacher is working in Guided Reading or Writing groups, the students can be engaged in independent work or centers…and the centers do not just have to be literacy-based; they can be based on any content areas!
In future posts, I will share more ideas on how you can use all of these balanced literacy elements in not only reading but in all content areas!
Photo Credits: Featured Image: Pixabay All other photos, unless otherwise noted, from my personal photo files
I love words. Words in books, words online, words in games, words out in the world. This quote could have been written about me: “She had always wanted words, she loved them; grew up on them. Words gave her clarity, brought reason, shape.”
― Michael Ondaatje, The English Patient
And another favorite quote…funny but also sadly, true…“Some people have a way with words, and other people…oh, uh, not have way.”
― Steve Martin
How can we ensure that our students have “a way with words”? In my previous blog post, I gave an overview of the elements of a literacy-rich environment: classroom materials, classroom design and layout, and reading and writing using authentic activities. I promised that I would go into more detail about each one, so the first topic will be WORD WALLS!
In this article from Questia.com, a word wall is defined as: “An ongoing, organized display of keywords that provides a visual reference for students throughout a unit of study.The words are used continually by teachers and students during a variety of activities.” However, when I first started presenting on word walls during my literacy training sessions, I discovered that many teachers had a narrow definition of which teachers and students should use word walls…namely primary teachers and students. But word walls are important for ALL students in ALL classrooms…pre-school to university! And (shocker!) they don’t have to be on a WALL!
Here are the purposes of word “walls” (whatever format they are in!):
To focus students’ attention on important subject area words
To allow Students to have multiple exposuresto new vocabulary and anchor the words in their long-term memory
To foster connections between words
To enable the use of content/academic words in discussions, writing, and activities in your classroom
The purposes listed above are necessary for whatever grade, content, subject or topic you are teaching! Here are some different types of “word walls”:
“Those who do the work, do the learning!” – Anonymous
I think it’s great that there are so many Word Wall card products on Teachers Pay Teachers…teachers don’t have the time to be making all those cards! But…there is no need for YOU to be creating the words for the wall…students should! It is far more powerful for the students to write the words that will go on the wall! Teachers just need to guide them in which/what words to include on the wall and make sure the handwriting is legible and the word spelled correctly. Student created word walls elicit far more excitement and ownership than a professionally created wall!
Okay, this is all great, but perhaps you don’t have a wall…or time to put stuff up…or your classroom changes all the time. No problem! You can still have your students use word walls in these ways:
One of my favorite memories from my literacy training years was presenting our district’s balanced literacy program to our Specials teachers (art, music, PE, band, orchestra, etc.) and having some of them create word walls for their content areas! Check out the P.E. wall, and what a middle school teacher has done in her classroom!
Okay, okay, so you now understand the importance and power of word walls…whether they are on a wall or not. Now…how do we get students to use them? Here are some ideas and resources for you!
Favorite Primary Grades Word Wall Activities: This book has SO many great activities for primary students! Some of my faves are:
Word Wall Storytelling: A “traveling” story where one person begins with a word and then others continue with their own words…no repeating! The teacher needs to keep track of which words are used.
Morning Mystery Message: Write your morning message to kids as usual, but leave some blanks where word wall words should go! Have kids guess which words they are!
Dictionary Word Wall: This is similar to Balderdash…make sure to have the real definition AND fake ones ready!
Double Trouble: Students guess the word using phonemic elements.
So what do you DO for word walls in your classroom? Do you have other ideas for how to do word walls and activities to use with them? Let’s hear it in the comments! SHARE the great things you are doing with other teachers….and until next time, “WORD UP”!
“Word up everybody says When you hear the call you’ve got to get it underway Word up it’s the code word No matter where you say it you know that you’ll be heard!”
Update on Newsela…I “waxed poetic” on how much I love this website in that previous post, and now it’s gotten even better! I’m not sure how long they have offered the units feature, but I just happened to discover them recently! (The link to the units only offers info on history units, but they have added much more! The units feature several articles (grouped in a Text Set) and teaching ideas to go with them. I chose to use the unit on Technology with my 8th-grade tutoring student, but they also have units on U.S. History, government, civil rights and ancient civilizations. The units come complete with guiding questions, student activities, and even a culminating project!
In addition to the units, each article on Newsela offers a writing prompt for practice in constructed writing responses, and some articles have Power Words, defined as: “Power Words are research-based, high frequency, high utility vocabulary words used across a range of texts.” Students can click on the words to discover the definition. Check out more information HERE.
I also revised Newsela’s summer reading graphic organizer (left) for my students to use after reading Newsela articles, with areas to put their scores on the quiz, a summary, and a reflection. (That’s one of the FREEBIES FOR YOU…KEEP READING TO SEE HOW TO GET IT!) For the summary, I am using the $2 Summary technique I learned from a 6th-grade teacher/colleague. The basic premise of this type of summary is that you write what the article is about (or the main idea) with just enough detail that the reader clearly understands what it was about. Each word in the summary (excluding the title) will “cost” the student 10¢ and they need their finished summary to cost as close to $2.00 as possible! Check out my 4th-grade student’s summaries in the photos above. I also think the reflection piece is important…the articles I have students read are about important or interesting topics, and I want them to reflect on the content they read.
Spelling/Vocabulary City – I can’t believe I did not include this website in my first literacy resources blog, but I think it’s because I wasn’t using it as often as I am now…I think I am now addicted to this website…not only is it FUN for the students and they learn so much about new vocabulary, but it’s so easy for teachers to manage and use. (Disclaimer: I went ahead and paid the $34.95 for the Premium Membership because while you can do a great deal with the free log-in, you can do so much more for your students with the premium!) Click HERE to learn more about the Premium features. Here’s how I use this website with my 1st – 5th students:
Self-Chosen Vocabulary: As students are reading books and articles, I have them either use small colored tabs to highlight unfamiliar words, online highlighting or list on their reading logs. This will personalize vocabulary instruction and lets students learn the word using the context in which it was written. I help students discern between words they are likely to encounter again in text or the world and words that they will not, such as words that are scientific, outdated or obscure. I then add their words into a list for them on Spelling/Vocabulary City. I give them choices on what activities (my personal favorite is the game show, Word-o-Rama) they want to use, but I always have them start with the Flashcards so they can learn the words. The students and I keep track of their progress with the activities and tests, and to help with this I created a log (CLICK ON THE FREEBIE AT END OF POST!) for them to track their progress and scores; this helps them take ownership of learning and success.
Academic Vocabulary: For students who are two or more years behind in reading and vocabulary skills, I will assign them Academic Vocabulary lists on this website. It’s so important that students learn the words they will see over and over in academic settings!
Spelling/Handwriting: Many of the activities and games are printable! For one of my students, I printed out a list of the words he misspelled on his benchmark writing assessment. This is written on writing paper with lines, so he was able to practice not only the spelling but handwriting skills as well!
That’s it for my Literacy Resources update! Comment below if you use these resources or have other ideas! Below are the images you can click on to get either the Newsela Log or Vocabulary/Spelling City Log…or both! Both will shortly go on sale on TpT, but you can get yours NOW! See you next week!
Improving reading fluency in young readers….that was the challenge for me when I was hired at an elementary school in Douglas County School District as a Literacy Specialist and was tasked with creating a school-wide reading intervention program with eight paras and 150 students on an Individualized Reading Plan (ILP) (now called a READ plan in Colorado). Many of those 150 students had issues with reading fluency. At this point in my career, I had never specifically worked with struggling readers. I had taught high school English back in the early 80s with no training in my teacher prep program in how to help struggling readers. Oh yes, I did teach a class called “Remedial English”, but all that meant is I was given a different set of books. I don’t remember much of what I did in that class 24 years ago! Flash forward to 2009 and I had to do some quick study on how to help these readers.
The next eight years was an incredible growth opportunity for me as I learned new methods, techniques, and programs for helping struggling readers. I took many classes, read books and journal articles and most importantly, learned from other teachers and the students in our reading intervention program. My passion became helping those struggling, non-fluent readers become not only proficient readers but also passionate readers.
What I saw in working with many older struggling readers is that some had somehow not been able to master phonemic awareness and phonics skills successfully, and that was impeding both fluency and comprehension. Others had mastered those two elements but their struggles with fluency made them discouraged and not a fan of reading. I tried many different methods, some successful, some not. To save you, the hard-working teacher time, here are my favorite resources and methods for helping non-fluent readers.
Assess the student using a benchmark (or interim) assessment…and one that preferably has national percentiles. You will not be able to show progress unless you get this first benchmark. I used either the AIMSWeb curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for oral reading and recorded how many words were correct in on minute. You can also use the Reading a-z fluency passages. With an AIMS account, you can access their oral reading norms to find where in relation your student is compared to other students at the same age. Many teachers at my schools relied on these norms to help us make many decisions, including possible Sped testing, or removal from the intervention program.
Once benchmarking is done, you can determine if intervention and progress monitoring is needed. For students not entering intervention or receiving progress monitoring, more data will be gathered at the next interim assessing period. For students who need intervention, you need to set up progress monitoring. We used the AIMSWeb progress monitoring passages and used either their browser-based scoring system to keep track of scores/percentiles, or created a spreadsheet to keep track. If you are doing this as an interventionist, it is important to keep classroom teachers in the loop with this data so they can share with parents.
Reading a-z fluency passages
AIMS Oral Reading passages
With my tutoring students, I use a Google Drive Spreadsheet to keep track of results and share with parents and their classroom teachers. Here’s a blank template for you! (If you’ve never created graphs from the data entered, here is a screencast to help you!)
The Reading a-z passages can be used in different ways too! First, I will print out three copies (or you can use these handy dandy dry erase pocket holders, bought from a Groupon deal, to save paper!) I will have the student do a cold read and record the time and number of miscues (although sometimes I don’t time it if my focus is on word attack skills). Next, we go over the errors with the student so she can see what she missed, substituted or mispronounced (This is SO important to do!)Then, she reads a second time, again recording the miscues and time and going over the miscues. If the time and/or miscues are lower….a Class Dojo or Edmodo badge for her! Next, you guessed it…we repeat this all over again. These repeated readings are SO important for increasing fluency! By practicing using the passages this way, chances are much better that she will perform better on progress monitoring and/or benchmark assessments. Below, you can see that my 4th-grade student, on the left, went from 5 to 0 errors after the 3rd reading. My 2nd-grade student went from 11 to 0 errors! I used the dry erase pocket holders and had the student underline the words they miscued on to draw their attention back to the word on the next reading. (Sorry about the glare from the overhead lights!)
Stopping at every miscue? Analyzing miscues? Okay, you may think I am heartless…but with kids who consistently miscue in a reading passage, I will sometimes wait until the end of a sentence or paragraph to stop them, but most often I will stop them immediately after they make a miscue. Why? Because there are many reasons a reader will miscue. Many are just word calling and not making meaning out of the words they are reading. Their brains start going faster than their mouth and the brain will quickly substitute a similar word. If you wait too long, the moment is lost…the brain and mouth have moved on. Next comes the miscue analysis…also so important! Below is a sample running record form from Reading a-z. Check out this video for some guidelines and click HERE for a blank running record form (Reading a-z also has blank ones available. Cathy Collier, in her blog: The W.I.S.E Owl has some great information on TYPES of miscues.
When they are still struggling….it’s time to check into vision issues. I wonder how many students have struggled in school because of vision issues? I’m not talking about the eyesight issues diagnosed by optometrists, but ones that may go undetected for years, such as visual tracking or eye teaming problems. In the last ten years, many optometrists and ophthalmologists have partnered with vision therapy experts to offer service to children (usually at some high fees, but check with your vision insurance). However, one benefit of seeking professional help is possible assessment with a Visagraph that tracks and records the movement of both eyes. It’s really similar to a benchmark or interim assessment; it provides the data needed to set up a plan of interventions and progress monitoring. I invited someone to come in on a professional development day and demonstrate this amazing machine, and I can safely say it “wowed” my audience of veteran teachers. In addition, the student (in the photo below we used a teacher as a student) gets to wear those really cool sci-fi type goggles!
I worked with several students over the years who had visual tracking issues, and it was beneficial to team with the occupational therapist at my school for some ideas that I could easily do during my small group time. Most OTs are willing to teach you and your class some simple eye warm-ups to get the eyes to team together better. In addition, Reading Plus offers online intervention and instruction where students read text using a guided window that moves across the text, graying out most of it and focusing on just the words being currently read. The speed decreases or increases depending on assessment results. In addition, the iBalance component helps increase reading speed, stamina, and visual tracking skills. I’ve also found that giving students some color overlay strips, or even just a white index card with a solid black line at the top can help kids track text better. In my tutoring “super backpack”, I always carry a few visual tracking aids for students who need this! Finally, here are a few more accommodation ideas from Understood.org.
Color overlay strips
The guided window in Reading Plus
6. Reader’s Theater…need I say more? Hmmm….let’s see, students practicing reading text over and over – of course, that will practice not only oral reading fluency but also reading expression! You can find plenty of scripts available online, such as this site, which not only has scripts but many lesson resources on using RT in your classroom. My favorite place to find RT scripts is Reading a-z; high-quality scripts and many are multi-leveled so your students are not always in the same group with same level readers. (Note: There is a yearly fee to join Reading a-z). Don’t forget poetry! Reading poetry, especially ones with a rhythm and rhyme helps to increase fluency. Get kids to learn and memorize favorite poems and then host “Open Mic Night” at a Poetry Cafe in your classroom!
7. Reading aloud…not just you, the teacher, reading aloud (but you do serve as that model for good fluency), but your kids reading aloud to each other and kids in younger grades! Again…REPEATED READING! Students can choose their favorite read aloud to share with the class in a “Reader’s Chair”. You could film or audio record kids reading their favorite read-aloud books, and post on the school’s website to serve as bedtime stories for other kids! Some of the best books for reading aloud AND improving fluency can be found at THIS site. Dr. Seuss books are perfect for developing fluency skills; in fact, I think my daughter perfected her fluency by memorizing The Foot Book. Silly Sally is another good choice; so are nursery rhymes. Please add your ideas for fun/fluency practicing read-aloud books in the comments below!
By the way, becoming a fluent reader often takes a strong growth mindset attitude from students. I will be posting more information in the future on this topic in your classroom, but be sure to check out my last blog on math activities you can do to develop growth mindset! Also, check out a past blog on literacy tools for your classroom! Looking for some consulting or PD for your teachers on any of the topics I write about? Check out more information HERE!
Here we go…Blog #2! First, a HUGE THANK YOU to all of you checked out my first blog and subscribed; I appreciate you more than you can know!
You will be finding out in later posts that I am a HUGE groupie of all things Laura Ingalls Wilder! I first discovered her in third grade in the Hartman Elementary School library in Omaha, Nebraska…I think it was Little House on the Prairie, but I quickly devoured that and went on to read the rest of her books. At that young age, I must have already had a love of history and journeys. I still have that original copy of LHP (below – bought in 1968) and now have all of the books she’s ever written, as well as books about her, about her family, and the Little House series stuff in general.
In the book, These Happy Golden Years, Laura became a teacher at the age of 15, in a one-room schoolhouse on the South Dakota prairie. All she had for her resources were her own school books, a blackboard, chalk and the primers for the students; check it out:
Today’s teacher needs far more tools! I’m happy to introduce the first of many blog posts about the latest and greatest teacher resources I have found and have been using with my tutoring students, or with the students when I worked in a school. This week focuses on literacy (many more literacy resources to come in the future)…I hope these are helpful!
Reading a-z: I’m sure you’ve heard of it…the website with all the leveled books…but do you know how much MORE they have? Yes, I have used this site to make leveled books in the past for my RtI students, and in the present for my tutoring students (leveled text is SO important for struggling readers!), but I have used this website’s resources for fluency practice (they have leveled fluency practice and assessment passages), benchmark assessments, and phonics practice and assessments. The phonics assessments are particularly helpful when first working with a young and/or struggling reader as it can help you understand where this child is at in his or her phonics abilities. There are also oodles of graphic organizers for reading, as well as for vocabulary! There are so many resources on this site…I keep finding new ones! I just discovered their close reading passages…short pieces of leveled text to strengthen students’ critical thinking skills. Reading a-z is not free; a school can either buy a license for or some classrooms or a teacher can buy an individual license for their own classroom. The cost is $109.95 for a year’s license – and worth every penny; I bought a license to use with all my tutoring students.
Oh, how I adore this site! I have used it for four years now, both with my gifted/highly able students and with my tutoring students, many of whom are struggling readers. Thousands upon thousands of leveled articles for students grades 2 through high school. Every topic you can think of is here…current events, world issues, history, science, politics, kid stuff, biographies, primary sources, famous speeches and more! You can choose the level of the article, assign to your students and have them read and then take the quiz or do a reading response. The articles can be printed out and used for guided reading, especially in the intermediate grades where it’s harder to find leveled text for groups. Newsela can be used as homework, independent reading or in literacy stations. I just use the free version, but that’s all I need for my students. Purchasing Newsela PRO can provide classroom teachers with more options; check with your school administration to see if they can fund this. For comparison of the free vs. PRO version, click HERE.https://quizlet.com/features/live
A few of my favorite literacy apps!
Quizlet – I use this ALL the time with my tutoring students! When we read books, Newsela articles or other passages, if there is a word they don’t know, I add it to their personal folder in Quizlet. You can share the folder with your students, or have them join their class to study the words. I also create lists of words they miscue in fluency practice passages or assessments and use others’ lists of Fry Sight Words (you can import lists other teachers have created into your class!). These lists are great to have students practice for the first or last five minutes of tutoring sessions. After enough practice, I will have them take the test on the word. There are also games they can play with the words! I would LOVE to use Quizlet Live, but I only work with one student at a time, and this is designed for a group of students. I have given them feedback that they should set it up for us tutors!
Fry Words – I used the app on my iPad as my RtI students played “Around the World”. All I had to do was hold up the iPad and they would say the word. No small flashcards! This app is appropriate for all elementary grades and struggling older readers.
iSort Words – Students have to sort words based on their beginning and endings. The app will keep track of how many they get right and their time. Check out a preview video HERE. Grades: 1st and 2nd grade, as well as struggling intermediate students.
Reading Comprehension: Fable Edition
Perfect for a literacy center of independent reading, this app provides elementary age students with a variety of stories to choose from and offers practice with vocabulary words and a comprehension quiz. You could easily use this for comprehension progress monitoring data. Grades: 1st – 5th
I can’t remember how/where I first discovered this app (based on the actual Story Cubes that come in a box), but it was many years ago when I was an elementary school literacy specialist. Being one of the few certified teachers who did not have a classroom, I was often called on to cover a classroom when a sub didn’t show up or a teacher had to leave early. I’ve always had this deep-rooted fear of being in a classroom and having nothing to do, so I quickly created a toolbox, both literal and digital, of activities I could do with any age of students. Story Cubes was always a big hit! I would put my iPad under the document camera, shake the iPad and the cubes would roll around. Once they “landed”, the students and I would discuss what the images were on the cubes. Many were open to interpretation…see my screenshot from below! Once we all decided on what the images were (I listed our decisions on the board), the students were off and writing. After a specified amount of time, I would have students partner up to share what they had so far and offer suggestions. After another amount of time, I would use a choice wheel or other fair way of choosing which students could come up and be in the Author’s Chair and share. You would not believe the variety of stories you will get, even if you have already decided on the images! Students then can have the option of taking the draft to completion or not. I developed a graphic organizer for students to use; they sketch the cube on the left and then write their description of what the cube depicts on the right. Then they plan their story. You can access this resource for FREE by clicking HERE! A variation is to roll the cubes under the doc cam and then let EACH student decide on their own what the images are, then create their story. I did this with several third gifted students, and while I let them each decide on the images, but one of them was a pyramid, so I got several Egypt stories! This app, or the actual box of cubes (which you can purchase on Amazon, at Walmart or Target and other places), would make a fantastic literacy center as well!
Last but not least…a few literacy hands-on games! Word Monkeys I love this game…and loved using it with my RtI reading groups and still use with my tutoring students! Now if I could just get my friends to come over and play it with me… This game has students trying to create words with the various cards in their hand. The more letters they can play, the more points they earn. I help my struggling readers out by telling them how many words they can make with the cards in their hands. If they immediately plan a two letter word, I ask them if they’re sure they can’t play a larger word for more points. This really gets them to think about how to put together digraphs, blends, vowels, and consonants to make words!
Photo by Jan
Photo by Jan
Another fun word building game! Students are given board with either blank side or a side with words missing the first letter. For the blank side, students take turns choosing both a vowel and a consonant and try to make words with each turn. For the missing first letter side, students choose consonants and try to make words. The first one to fill up their board wins!
That’s it for now! If you have also used any of these resources, please comment below and let me know what you think of them. If you try any for the first time, also comment! Stay tuned for more virtual mentoring, and in the meantime, hang in there, teachers! You are all my heroes!